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Metabolismus, výdej a příjem energie

08.11.2007 l Radek Mirovský

Udržování optimální váhy a redukce tukové tkáně je mimo jiné závislé na množství přijaté a spotřebované energie. Hodnota vydané energie potřebné pro látkovou přeměnu se jinak nazývá metabolismus.

Pro určení metaboslimu je nutné znát hodnotu bazálního (klidového) metabolismu. K němu pak připočteme energii, kterou vydáváme fyzickou i duševní činností během dne a výsledné číslo je množství vydané energie nutné pro pokrytí celkového denního metabolismu. Základními jednotkami jsou buď kilokalorie (kcal) nebo kilojoule (kJ), přičemž 1 kcal je zhruba 4,2 kJ.

Bazální metabolismus (BM)

Bazální neboli klidový metabolismus (BM) je energie, která je nezbytná pro základní životní pochody v organismu - termoregulace, svalové napětí, funkce srdce, jater, ledvin, plic, centrální nervové soustavy atd. Jakákoliv pohybová i duševní činnost navíc (chůze, oblékání, čtení, běh, soustředění, stres i trávení potravy) výdej energie zvyšuje.

Stanovení bazálního metabolismu

BM lze stanovit přibližně podle níže uvedených vzorců, výsledná hodnota je však pouze orientační (podobně jako v případě BMI). Pokud chceme získat přesnou hodnotu svého BM, je lepší navštítit odborné pracoviště, které se stanovením BM zabývá.

muži : BM = 66 + (13.7 x hmotnost) + (5 x výška) – (6.8 x věk) (kcal)
ženy : BM = 655 + (9.6 x hmotnost) + (1.85 x výška) – (4.7 x věk) (kcal)


BM fyzicky průměrného muže (cca 180 cm, 75 kg, 20 - 50 let) je asi 1670 - 1860 kcal (7000 - 7800 kJ) za 24 hodin.

BM fyzicky průměrné ženy (cca 167 cm, 61 kg, 20 - 50 let) je 1310 - 1480 kcal (5500 - 6200 kJ) za 24 hodin.

Hodnota BM je individuální veličina - výsledné číslo je ovlivněno věkem, tělesnou strukturou, pohlavím, výškou, váhou, poměrem aktivní (netukové tkáně) a pasivní hmoty (tukové tkáně). Energetický výdej je nejvyšší během dětství a dospívání, v průběhu těhotenství a kojení atd. S rostoucím věkem hodnota BM klesá, což se u většiny z nás projevuje zvyšováním procenta tuku.

Za předpokladu, že přijatá strava bude obsahovat všechny druhy kvalitních živin podle teorie zónové diety (viz článek o základních živinách ) a že bude přijatá energie odpovídat zhruba energii vydané, neměl by zdravý a fyzicky aktivní člověk ani přibírat ani ztrácet váhu. A neměl by se ani měnit poměr aktivní a pasivní hmoty (netuková a tuková tkáň).

Naopak budeme-li se snažit redukovat tukovou tkáň, měli bychom přijmout méně, než vydáme. Teoreticky by zdravý člověk měl zhubnout 1 kg tukové tkáně za měsíc, za předpokladu, že každý den přijme o 1000 kJ méně, než vydá. Za optimální se považuje hubnout kolem 2 kg tukové tkáně za měsíc, tj. cca 2000 kJ za den méně přijmout než vydat.

Příklady hodnot metabolismu při různých aktivitách


Běh 12 km/h.......................... 900% BM
Běh 16 km/h........................ 1280% BM
Běh 20 km/h........................ 2000% BM
Jízda na kole 12 km/h............. 340% BM
Jízda na kole 18 km/h............. 560% BM
Jízda na kole 24 km/h........... 1060% BM
Plavání prsa 50 m/min............. 780% BM
Plavání kraul 50m/min........... 1180% BM
Chůze 5 km/h........................ 300% BM
Chůze 7 km/h........................ 440% BM


Hodnoty jsou uvedeny v procentech bazálního metabolismu. Vždy je však nutno brát v potaz jen dobu, po jakou dobu je aktivita vykonávána. To znamená, že pokud bude člověk 1 hodinu běhat rychlostí 12 km/h, musí vynásobit BM devíti a to celé vydělit 24 a připočíst k BM a ostatním aktivitám.

Zhubnout, vytvarovat a zpevnit postavu však jde i jinak. Ve spolupráci s profesionálními trenéry fitness, fyzioterapeuty a výživovými specialisty, jsme pro vás připravili speciální program Hubnutí a tvarování postavy zaměřený na zpevnění problémových partií, zlepšení stravovacích návyků a redukci váhy.

Radek Mirovský (www.radek-cvici.cz) je osobní trenér (www.trener-fitness.cz)

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